Volume 0, Number 20 (َAutumn&Winter 2014)                   مطالعات عرفانی 2014, 0(20): 41-70 | Back to browse issues page


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Transcendental Theology in ‘Attār Romances. مطالعات عرفانی. 2014; 0 (20) :41-70
URL: http://s-erfani.kashanu.ac.ir/article-1-672-en.html

Abstract:   (829 Views)
The story of the struggle between assimilation and transcendence of the Essence Attributes and Acts of God can be considered as the earliest and most widespread verbal dispute among the followers of the Abrahamic religions. In the Islamic world, sects such as Karrāmiyyah, Hashviyyah and Ash‘arites have been accused of assimilation of God’s essence, contrary to Mu'tazilites, Shi‘ites, and Muslim theosophists who have been accused of equating the Attributes and Acts of God with those of man. This essay aims to study the approach of the distraught theosophist of Nishabour, Farīd al-dīn Muhammad ‘Attār (540-618 A.H. / 1145- 1221 A.D.) considering the above mentioned subjects in his three everlasting works (Elāhī Nāmah, Muṣībat Nāmah and Manṭiq al-Ṭayr). This research suggests that even in the mood of composing his poems, Farīd al-Dīn has also a transcendental approach as he frequently expresses. Unlike Ash'arites, ‘Attār doesn’t differentiate between the Attributes and Essence of God. He believes that the reason lags behind the cognition of substance of the Essence, Attributes and Acts of God and also thinks that God is pure against being called by name, he believe whatsoever the servants perceive, in fact, reflects their own imagination: “man perceives no more of him than imagination". Also in Manṭiq al-Ṭayr, the Simurgh was seen as thirty birds by the birds at the end of their journey: "they saw unspeakable and nonattributable Holiness". The Farīd al-dīn’s transcendental approach that even gets close to the leading edge of negative theology, reminds us of the first sermon of Imam Ali (AS) in Nahj al-Balāghat. On the other side, ‘Attār’s cavils at the Divine mercy which has been uttered by the distressed shows that he believes in rationale for good and evil deeds and he considers God not indisputable.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/09/29 | Accepted: 2015/09/29 | Published: 2015/09/29

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